Vaccination is the most significant public health intervention in the last 200 years, providing a safe and efficient way to prevent the spread of many diseases that cause hospitalisation, serious ongoing
health conditions and sometimes death.
Immunisation protects people against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community. Immunisation uses the body’s natural defence mechanism – the immune response –
to build resistance to specific infections. Immunisation helps communities to stay healthy by reducing the incidence of serious infections.
Most vaccines are administered by injection. Some are administered orally.
The diseases which can be prevented by routine childhood immunisation are included in
the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) Schedule.
Vaccines covered by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) are provided to eligible people in
line with the AMC Schedule. Eligibility for AMC vaccines is either age based or for certain groups at increased medical risk. Refer to the AMC Schedule. to find out which vaccines you or your family are
AMC vaccines and information regarding immunisation can be provided by a variety of immunisation providers, including GPs and nurses at local councils and community based clinics, who
have undergone specific immunisation training. Although the AMC vaccine will be provided at no cost,
the health care provider (such as a GP) may charge a consultation fee for the immunisation visit.
To find an immunisation provider near you contact your state.
The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation funds vaccines to prevent the following diseases: diphtheria, Haemophilus Influenzae type b (hib), Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Influenza
(flu), measles, meningococcal, mumps, Pertussis (whooping cough), pneumococcal, poliomyelitis (polio), rotavirus, rubella (German measles), tetanus (lockjaw) and Varicella (chickenpox).
Vaccination means having a vaccine.
Immunisation means both receiving a vaccine and becoming immune to a disease, as a result
Most people use the terms ‘vaccination’ and ‘immunisation’ interchangeably, but their meanings are
not exactly the same. The term ‘immunisation’ is used in this website, as it is most commonly used in
All forms of immunisation work in the same way. When a person is vaccinated, their body produces
an immune response to the vaccine in the same way that it would after being infected by a disease –
but without the person suffering symptoms of the disease. When a person comes into contact with
that disease in the future, their immune system will respond fast enough to prevent the person
developing the disease, or serious complications of the disease.
There are very few medical reasons to delay immunisation. If a person is sick with a high temperature
(over 38°C) then immunisation should be postponed until the person is recovering. A child who has a
runny nose but does not have a high temperature can be immunised, as can a child who is on
antibiotics and obviously recovering from an illness. Talk to your immunisation provider if you are
Many children experience minor side effects following immunisation. Most side effects last a short
time and the child recovers without any problems. Common side effects of immunisation are redness,
soreness and swelling at the site of an injection, mild fever, and grizzly or unsettled behaviour. You
should give your child extra fluids to drink, not overdress babies if they are hot, and consider using
paracetamol to help ease the fever and soreness.
Although serious reactions to immunisation, such as febrile seizures, are very rare, if they do occur
you should consult your doctor immediately.
Immunity to disease can be developed through vaccination, or naturally through having the disease.
The body’s immune response in both circumstances is the same, though natural immunity is usually
lifelong and vaccine induced immunity may diminish with time. In some cases, vaccine-induced
immunity may diminish with time; natural immunity is usually life-long. Relying on natural immunity
means an individual has to be exposed to the disease which has risks of serious complications or
death. Children or adults can be re-immunised (required with some vaccines but not all) if their
immunity falls to a low level.
Homoeopathic preparations do not provide natural immunity nor does being fit and healthy, only
conventional vaccination produces a measurable immune response.
Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way of protecting a child from diseases that can cause
serious illness and sometimes death. If most children are vaccinated, this indirectly protects people
who are still susceptible to the disease as they are less likely to come into contact with someone who
is carrying the pathogens – a concept known as herd immunity. Herd immunity can protect those who
are too young to be vaccinated or cannot be vaccinated because of medical conditions (eg receiving
chemotherapy), and those who do not respond adequately to immunisation. The more people who
vaccinate their children, the greater our ability to control serious vaccine preventable diseases.
An important feature of immunisation is that it brings benefits not only for the individual who receives
the vaccine, but also for the entire population through a concept known as herd immunity, sometimes
also called community immunity.
If enough people are immunised and protected from a disease, the infection will not be able to spread.
This protects the population as a whole from infection. Herd immunity is important for those who
cannot receive vaccinations. These include children who are too young to be vaccinated, people with
immune system problems and those too ill to receive vaccines. The proportion of the population which
must be immunised in order to achieve herd immunity varies for each disease but can be up to 95%
for some highly infectious diseases, such as measles. The underlying principle is the same: once
enough people are protected, they help to protect vulnerable members of the community by reducing
the spread of disease.
No. Children and adults come into contact with many antigens (substances that provoke a reaction
from the immune system) each day, and the immune system responds to each antigen in specific
ways to protect the body. Without a vaccine, a child can only become immune to a disease by being
exposed to infection, with the risk of severe illness. If illness occurs after vaccination, it is usually
Immunisation is the safest and most effective way of giving protection against vaccine-preventable
diseases. After immunisation, a person is far less likely to catch the disease if there are cases in the
community. If enough people in the community are immunised, the infection can no longer be spread
from person to person. For example, smallpox was officially declared eradicated in 1980 after a
concerted campaign of surveillance and vaccination led by the World Health Organization. A similar
campaign by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has succeeded in reducing polio cases with only a
few isolated cases remaining in the developing world. In March 2014, the World Health Organization
declared that Polio has been eliminated in India. It is important to maintain high levels of vaccination
against measles, with two doses of measles vaccine required, as cases of measles can still be
imported by travellers from countries where the disease is prevalent.
All vaccines currently available in India must pass stringent safety testing before being approved for
use by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. This testing is required by law and is usually done over
many years during vaccine development.
Before vaccines are made available for use, they are rigorously tested in thousands of people in
progressively larger clinical trials. These trials are strictly monitored for safety. The approval process
for a vaccine can take up to 10 years.
For further information, please see Safety of Vaccines.
A number of immunisations are required in the first few years of a child’s life to protect them against
the most serious infections of childhood. The immune system in young children does not work as well
as the immune system in older children and adults, because it is still immature. Therefore, more
doses of vaccine are often needed.
Another reason why children get many immunisations is that new vaccines against serious infections
continue to be developed. However, the number of injections is also being reduced by the use of
combination vaccines, where several vaccines are combined into one injection.
Within Mobigram a transactional call is one which conforms to our policy.
Immunisation is the safest and most effective way of providing protection against the disease. After
immunisation, your child is far less likely to catch the disease if there are cases in the community and
if it is caught, they are likely to only have mild symptoms. The benefit of protection against the disease
far outweighs the risks of immunisation.
If enough people in the community are immunised, the infection can no longer be spread from person
to person. This is how smallpox was eliminated from the world and polio has disappeared from many
Since 2000, vaccines available on India’s Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation have not contained thiomersal.
Thiomersal (or thimerosal) is a preservative that contains a form of mercury. Thiomersal is partly
composed of mercury in the form of ethylmercury. It was used in very small amounts in vaccines from
the 1930s onwards, to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination. Many comprehensive studies and
reviews by expert panels have shown that there is no evidence of developmental or neurological
abnormalities, such as autism, having resulted from the use of vaccines containing thiomersal.
Nonetheless, thiomersal was removed from childhood and adolescent vaccines as a precautionary
In general, the normal immune response to vaccines takes approximately two weeks to work. This
means that protection from an infection will not occur immediately after immunisation.
Some vaccines need to be given a number of times to build long-lasting protection. For example, a
child who has been given only one or two doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTPa) is
only partially protected against diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus, and may become sick if
exposed to these diseases. However, some vaccines give protection after only one dose.
The protective effect of some immunisations can last up to 30 years. Other immunisations are
required more often, such as influenza immunisation which is need annually due to frequent changes
to the type of influenza virus circulating in the community. In addition, booster doses are needed for
some vaccines because immunity decreases over time. Refer to the Ahmedabad Municipal
Corporation Schedule for booster
Some vaccines, such as Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, are not needed by children but are
required by adults. HPV immunisation has the greatest benefit when administered in early
The effect of some vaccines administered in early childhood, such as pertussis and hepatitis B, wane
over time. A booster is required to ensure continued protection from these diseases.
Since the introduction of vaccination for children in India in 1932, death from vaccine-preventable
diseases has fallen by 99 per cent, despite a threefold increase in the Indian population over that
Immunisation not only protects vaccinated individuals, but it also helps protect the entire population
(for example those who are too young to be vaccinated or those that are not able to be vaccinated for
medical reasons). For immunisation to provide the greatest benefit, a sufficient number of people
(around 90 per cent for most diseases) need to be vaccinated to halt the spread of bacteria and
viruses that cause disease - a phenomenon called ‘herd immunity’.
Even when all the doses of a vaccine (the course) have been given to an individual, not everyone is
protected against the disease.
Measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type B (hib) vaccines protect
more than 95% of children who have completed the course. One dose of meningococcal C vaccine at
12 months protects over 90% of children. Three doses of whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine protect
about 85% of children who have been immunised, and will reduce the severity of the disease in the
other 15% if they do catch whooping cough.
The protection levels provided by vaccines differ. For example, if 100 children are vaccinated with the
measles, mumps, rubella vaccine, 5-10 of the fully immunised children might still catch measles,
mumps or rubella (although the disease will often be milder in immunised children). However, if you
do not immunise 100 children with MMR vaccine, and the children are exposed to measles, most of
them will catch the disease with a high risk of complications, such as lung infection (pneumonia) or
inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).
BCG is given on the left upper arm to maintain uniformity and for helping surveyors in
verifying the receipt of the vaccine.
This is because the skin of newborns is thin and an intra dermal injection of 0.1ml may break
the skin or penetrate into the deeper tissue and cause local abscess and enlarged auxiliary
Most children acquire natural clinical/ sub-clinical tuberculosis infection by the age of one
year. This too protects against severe forms of childhood tuberculosis e.g. TB meningitis and
There is no need to revaccinate the child even if there is no scar. OPV Till what age can a
child be given OPV? OPV can be given to children till 5 years of age.
The DTP vaccine can be given until 2 years of age and OPV can be given till 5 years of age.
If a child has received previous doses but not completed the schedule, do not restart the
schedule and instead administer the remaining doses needed to complete the series.
If the child comes between 2 to 5 years without any vaccination, two doses of DT can be
given with OPV with a minimum gap of 4 weeks (or one month). A single dose of measles
vaccine also needs to be given with first dose of DT. Why should there be a minimum gap of
4 weeks between two doses of DTP? This is because decreasing the interval between two
doses may interfere with the antibody response and protection.
DTP is given in the antero-lateral mid-thigh and not the gluteal region to prevent damage to
the sciatic nerve. Moreover, the vaccine deposited in the fat of gluteal region does not invoke
the appropriate immune response. 22 What should one do if the child is found allergic to
DTP or develops encephalopathy after DTP? A child who is allergic to DTP or develops
encephalopathy after DTP should be given the DT vaccine instead of DTP for the remaining
doses, as it is usually the P (whole cell Pertussis) component of the vaccine which causes
Give 2 doses of TT during the pregnancy as per the schedule. HEPATITIS B VACCINE Can
Hepatitis B vaccine be mixed in the same syringe with DTP and given as one injection? No,
DTP and Hepatitis B vaccine (if supplied separately) cannot be mixed or administered
through the same syringe.
According to the National Immunization Schedule, Hepatitis B vaccine should be given with
the first, second and third doses of DTP till one year of age.
The birth dose of Hepatitis B vaccine (within the first 24 hours) is effective in preventing peri-
natal transmission of Hepatitis B.
The Measles vaccine is given on the right upper arm to maintain uniformity and to help
surveyors in verifying the receipt of the vaccine. If a child has received the Measles vaccine
before 9 months of age, is it necessary to repeat the vaccine later? Yes, the Measles
vaccine needs to be administered, according to the National Immunization Schedule, after
the completion of 9 months until 12 months of age. If not administered in the ideal age for
Measles vaccine, it can be administered until 5 years of age.
No, currently this is a single dose vaccine and should not be repeated.
Yes, the child is eligible to receive a dose of the JE vaccine, through RI, till the age of 15
A total of 9 prophylactic doses of vitamin A should be given till 5 years of age.
The minimum gap between any two doses of vitamin A should be 6 months.
Vitamin A syrup should be administered using only the spoon/dispenser provided with each
bottle. The half mark in the spoon indicates 100,000 IU and a level full spoon contains
200,000 IU of Vitamin A.
Administer 200,000 IU of Vitamin A immediately after diagnosis, followed by another dose of
200,000 IU, 1-4 weeks later.
Vitamin A solution must be kept away from direct sunlight and can be used until the expiry
A Vitamin A bottle, once opened, should be used within 6-8 weeks. Write the date of opening
on the bottle.
These are promotion of: 25 early and exclusive breast feeding, including feeding of
colostrum, rich in vitamin A. regular consumption of dark green leafy vegetables or yellow
and orange fruits and vegetables like pumpkin, carrots, papaya, mango, oranges along with
cereals and pulses to a weaning child consumption of milk, cheese, curd, ghee, eggs, liver
Yes, all the due vaccines can be given during the same session but at different injection
sites using separate AD syringes. It is safe and effective to give BCG, DTP, Hepatitis B,
OPV and Measles vaccines and Vitamin A at the same time to a 9 months old child who has
never been vaccinated. If the mother/caregiver permits administration of RQO
At 9 months of age, the priority is to give measles vaccine with OPV and Vitamin-A.
The child should be given DTP1, OPV-1, Measles and 2ml of Vitamin A solution. It should
then be given the second and third doses of DTP and OPV at one month intervals till 2 26
years of age. The Booster doses can be given at a minimum of 6 months after administering
Give the child only 2 doses of TT one month apart. Why is it not advisable to clean the
injection site with a spirit swab before vaccination? This is because some of the live
components of the vaccine are killed if they come in contact with spirit.